OpenStreetMap for disaster response – raw notes from Harry Wood talk

Very raw, sometimes verbatim but doubtless flawed notes from Harry Wood‘s excellent talk at Open Data Institute in London. #odifridays

Many thanks to Harry for a great talk and to ODI for putting together these lunchtime lectures. The ODI have also published slides and audio from the talk.

“An introduction to OpenStreetMap, the UK born project to map the world as open data, and a look at how volunteer mappers helped with disaster response in the Philippines after Typhoon Haiyan, with Harry Wood . Harry is a developer at, and is on the board of the Humanitarian OpenStreetMap Team.”

Note: this is un-checked, very raw notes that I typed while listening. There will be mistakes and confusions; my fault not Harry’s!

Typhoons …phillipines area hammered during typhoon season. The typhoons often meander off, don’t hit coast. But this one hit, and fast, … so a big storm surge. Fastest wind speeds on record ‘biggest storm ever’.

[shows video clip]

More than 6000 died. Role of mapping in disaster responses: food shelter etc; can donate money directly for giving food.  Info / logistics challenge re delivering aid. Lots of ‘where?’ questions. Where are people suffering most;? Where to deliver aid to? team locations etc. Huge value of maps for disaster response.

Q: who has edited OSM? A: lots of hands raised.

Maps … GIS / vector data will always be a bit complex, but we try to dumb it down. The data model is also v stripped down, just tagged nodes and ways. e.g. a pub is a node with amenity=pub. It’s also renderable map -> viewed as a map on, … but we play down that aspect a bit, since there are other map providers around e.g. Google.

But the maps are a important aspect of disaster response.

OSM editing -> appear on map can take ~ 10 mins.

This is quite a technical hit. There’s a rendering server here in London; aspect of providing a feedback loop (editing -> new map).  A shared commons for geo data. AID orgs get excited … coming together sharing same platform. OSM is very much about raw data too, not just the maps. So this is different to pure map providers, … entirely open access to the raw data.

In terms of the humanitarian response, … agencies can take the data unencumbered, use it offline. It is open data. there is an exciting open data story for OSM.

As humanitarian work, it can be a problem that we allow commercial re-use – [not all orgs welcome that]

Community + Raw vector data + simple editing + Updated map — these 4 elements make it very attractive to humanitarian work.

Haiti in 2010, collab came together very quickly, for the two worst-hit cities (port au Prince and …). This speed was v useful for aid orgs; those orgs were printing it out, in tents, response centres. People used it on the web too, Ushahidi too, ie they’re a bit more accurate due to these improvements.

“my favourite use: ” … a Garmin handheld GPS unit, … loaded with data from open ecosystem, used offline  quintessential use case of raw data from OSM but also life-saving. Since haiti, there have been other disasters. Not all of these so suited to OSM helping out – e.g. massive pakistan floods, … harder to map such a larger area. Couldn’t get imagery for that entire area.

To some extent there are pakistan maps already; less so for Haiti. Similarly re Japan, already were maps.

re Sendai tsunami, .. yes there were free maps; yes there were high quality official maps, … but could you get hold of recently updated freely avail high quality maps? so still some role there.

Since then, organizing more: Tasking Manager,

A common Q: ‘where to start mapping?’

Way of coordinating for a large area. Drop a grid, get people to acquire a square, … load into editor, ‘done’ when done. This workflow came into its own during Philippines. Sometimes in resp to an aid agency request, … or as we have imagery, … Visualizing changesets, .. bounding boxes slide, Philippines editing traffic [slide] brand new, made last night,  … got up to almost 300 users involved on 1 day. No of changes (philippines) ~ 40,000 edits.

Peak in interest corresponds in interest, corresponds to general interest [shows google trends], though shows a slightly longer attention span. Want the spike further over to the left,… the sooner the better, e.g. as aid agencies may be taking a snapshot of our data, …

Graph showing new users … ppl who appear to have registered during the time of the disaster response,  shows also ‘old timers’ getting engaged earlier, few days lag for the newer users.

We have a humanitarian mapping style, … not the default OSM view  we tweaked it slightly – e.g. to show a red outline around buildings appear to be damaged. Getting mappers to look at post-disaster imagery, e.g. buildings that have been swept away with water. More examples of data getting used: map posters popular with aid agencies; they fly out now with a cardboard roll full of osm posters. In particular red cross heavily involved.

In UK office down in Moorgate, used tasking manager there, contributing to OSM to improve the printouts they were getting. Ways to help:; comms, blogging, coordination, wiki, promo videos and tutorials, imagery warping / tiling / hosting;

software dev’t, use the open data; build tools to work with it, …

Gateway skill: learn to map!


A Quick demo.

  • Shows tasking manager UI from

  • colour coded squares either mapped, or mapped and validated by a 2nd reviewer

  • click to acquire a square, then to invoke OSM editor of choice e.g. JOSM

  • alternative – edit directly in website via js-based UI

  • we tend to teach new users the JOSM GUI

  • shows workflow of marking a road (nodes/ways) picking up from work in ‘someone else’s square’

Comment from a Nigel of mapaction v supportive, ‘used it all the time’. ‘last few emergencies, … this stuff is pervasive, if it wasn’t there we’d be really struggling’.

Comment from Andrew B… (british red cross) the volunteer aspect as well, … between us and mapaction, it’s the volunteers that make it happen, …

Q to audience, for Haiyan, lessons?

Andew points to row of British red cross mapping volunteers – ‘we’re coordinating w/ US red cross, federation, …  they’re dealing with those in the area; whereas Nigel is using it on the ground in this area that’s going out tomorrow. We were doing situational reports, who-what-where-when eg risk vs need vs capabilities, … understanding that kind of stuff. This gives us underlying map, to support all this.

Q re coordination. Nigel of mapaction “Maps are coordination glue”; Harry  “everything has a location aspect.”

Ed Parsons Q: “v interested  in task manager element … if you had the info before, that’s hugely valuable how successful ? how do you motivate ppl to map an area they’ve not thought about?

Harry: many people motivated by seeing it on the news, …in  a way a shame as better if happens ahead of time, … work on that under disaster risk reduction. e.g. in Indonesia we have extensive mapping work, as it lies on a fault line, risk assessment, … trying to get a map of every building, get people to draw around buildings . But there’s less enthusiasm for these things before they’re needed.

Harry: gratifying that tasking manager is software we’ve dev’t reasonably, that HOT as an org has matured as a community, we have etiquette ar ound using the tasking manager, fell into place naturally.

Ivan (doctors without borders): 2nds Nigel’s point  re lifesaving we have years, decades of health data. People telling us where ppl are from … To understand epidemic patterns … in haiti we couldn’t find src of the outbreaks (despite Snow/cholera analogy) … because we can’t get raw usable data that correlates to what people report as their place of origin and where they got sick. Wokring w/ OSM. Some success in Phillipines, … more challenge in Congo & other area. Aim to be able to correlate places reported from walk-in patients to a real world place, and get into forecasting and preventative medicine. Struggling to achieve in these situations what europe had 150 years ago.

Harry: importance of geocoding from names

Ivan: every person in the world has some description for where they live If it’s a streetname/number that’s easy; if its’ directions from a b-b tree that’s harder. But can make a start, ideally 1-200M, but kilometers better than nothing. We sit on piles of data that we can’t correlate to anything so far.

Biggest single impediment is access to imagery? get other providers to do as BIng…

Harry: the challenge for imagery providers is that it is worth money, which is why they put satellites or fly the planes, so can’t eat away at that too much. OFten you’ll see data made availaable temporarily after emergency . For example re Pakistan, downgraded/fuzzy quality data was shared. There are some agreements in place, … us govt put in place frameworks to source data. For example that the imagery can only be used in an OSM editor. But need to be able to derrive vector data from it (hence there are issues with using Google imagery in this way).

Luke Cayley(sp?): (missed). concur w/ Nigel, Ivan. Q re imagery: have you tried to get it from European disaster mechanism, Copernicus, which has some provisions for disaster readyness prep.

Harry: will follow up on this.

Luke Q: how aid agencies use the raw data in the field to collect data? eg. MSF, … What’s your feeling for the barriers to making this a well recognised procedure, using OSM as one of the tools to make that happen?

Harry: did start to discuss re Phillipines, … about data into OSM from on the ground teams. With Haiti streetnames you don’t get them from the raw imagery so needs on-the-ground gathering. The process for on the ground gathering is pretty mature around OSM, tools, mobile apps etc. But a case of getting ppl interested in doing that. In diaster response situatoin, it is hard to tell peopel they ought to be writing down names of streets.

Q: for DFID Luke, … a number of funds are available. Because OSM is a global public good, it is the kind of thing DFID would tend to be supportive of in funding proposals (but can’t promise).

Harry: re diaster situation, often it won’t be a priority during the diaster to collect street names. All it takes is geo-located photos, a snap of a street sign.

Q from someone called Chris … you spoke of satellite imagery as source for mapping. Are you exploring use of pro-sumer vs aerial imagery?

Harry: Satellite imagery is now approaching aerial photography quality, but remains expensive due to operational cost. Another cost is the vast amount of disk space, bandwidth, hosting costs. These problems are not insurmountable. OSM and HOT have some resources to help here – ‘talk to us’.  Aerial imagery historically has been better. If you look at Bing or Google ‘satellite’ images they’re often from planes, so yes, that can help. Also new area of drones over small (but maybe important) areas.

Lonclass and RDF

Lonclass is one of the BBC’s in-house classification systems – the “London classification”. I’ve had the privilege of investigating lonclass within the NoTube project. It’s not currently public, but much of what I say here is also applicable to the Universal Decimal Classification (UDC) system upon which it was based. UDC is also not fully public yet; I’ve made a case elsewhere that it should be, and I hope we’ll see that within my lifetime. UDC and Lonclass have a fascinating history and are rich cultural heritage artifacts in their own right, but I’m concerned here only with their role as the keys to many of our digital and real-world archives.

Why would we want to map Lonclass or UDC subject classification codes into RDF?

Lonclass codes can be thought of as compact but potentially complex sentences, built from the thousands of base ‘words’ in the Lonclass dictionary. By mapping the basic pieces, the words, to other data sources, we also enrich the compound sentences. We can’t map all of the sentences as there can be infinitely many of them – it would be an expensive and never-ending task.

For example, we might have a lonclass code for “Report on the environmental impact of the decline of tin mining in Sweden in the 20th century“. This would be an jumble of numbers and punctuation which I won’t trouble you with here. But if we parsed out that structure we can see the complex code as built from primitives such as ‘tin mining’ (itself e.g. ‘Tin’ and ‘Mining’), ‘Sweden’, etc. By linking those identifiable parts to shared Web data, we also learn more about the complex composite codes that use them. Wikipedia’s Sweden entry tells us in English, “Sweden has land borders with Norway to the west and Finland to the northeast, and water borders with Denmark, Germany, and Poland to the south, and Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Russia to the east.”. Increasingly this additional information is available in machine-friendly form. Although right now we can’t learn about Sweden’s borders from the bits of Wikipedia reflected into DBpedia’s Sweden entry, but UN FAO’s geopolitical ontology does have this information and more in RDF form.

There is more, much more, to know about Sweden than can possibly be represented directly within Lonclass or UDC. Yet those facts may also be very useful for the retrieval of information tagged with Sweden-related Lonclass codes. If we map the Lonclass notion of ‘Sweden’ to identified concepts described elsewhere, then whenever we learn more about the latter, we also learn more about the former, and indirectly, about anything tagged with complex lonclass codes using that concept. Suddenly an archived TV documentary tagged as covering a ‘report on the environmental impact of the decline of tin mining in Sweden’ is accessible also to people or machines looking under Scandinavia + metal mining. Environmental matters, after all, often don’t respect geo-political borders; someone searching for coverage of environmental trends in a neighbouring country might well be happy to find this documentary. But should Lonclass or UDC maintain an index of which countries border which others? Surely not!

Lonclass and UDC codes have a rich hidden structure that is rarely exploited with modern tools. Lonclass by virtue of its UDC heritage, does a lot of work itself towards representing complex conceptual inter-relationships. It embodies a conceptual map of our world, with mysterious codes (well known in the library world) for topics such as ‘622 – mining’, but also specifics e.g. ‘622.3 Mining of specific minerals, ores, rocks’, and combinations (‘622.3:553.9 Extraction of carbonaceous minerals, hydrocarbons’). By joining a code for ‘mining a specific mineral…’ to a code for ‘553.9 Deposits of carbonaceous rocks. Hydrocarbon deposits’ we get a compound term. So Lonclass/UDC “knows” about the relationship between “Tin Mining” and “Mining”, “metals” etc., and quite likely between “Sweden” and “Scandinavia”. But it can’t know everything! Sooner or later, we have to say, “Sorry, it’s not reasonable to expect the classification system to model the entire world; that’s a bigger problem”.

Even within the closed, self-supporting universe of UDC/Lonclass, this compositional semantics system is a very powerful tool for describing obscure topics in terms  of well known simpler concepts. But it’s too much for any single organisation (whether the BBC, the UDC Consortium, or anyone) to maintain and extend such a system to cover all of modern life; from social, legal and business developments to new scientific innovations. The work needs to be shared, and RDF is currently our best bet on how to create such work sharing, meaning sharing, information-linking systems in the Web. The hierarchies in UDC and Lonclass don’t attempt to represent all of objective reality; they instead show paths through information.

If the metaphor of a ‘conceptual map’ holds up, then it’s clear that at some point it’s useful to have our maps made by different parties, with different specialised knowledge. The Web now contains a smaller but growing Web of machine readable descriptions. Over at MusicBrainz is a community who take care of describing the entities and relationships that cover much of music, or at least popular music. Others describe countries, species, genetics, languages, historical events, economics, and countless other topics. The data is sometimes messy or an imperfect fit for some task-in-hand, but it is actively growing, curated and connected.

I’m not arguing that Lonclass or UDC should be thrown out and replaced by some vague ‘linked cloud’. Rather, that there are some simple steps that can be taken towards making sure each of these linked datasets contribute to modernising our paths into the archives. We need to document and share opensource tools for an agreed data model for the arcane numeric codes of UDC and Lonclass. We need at least the raw pieces, the simplest codes, to be described for humans and machines in public, stable Web pages, and for their re-use, mapping, data mining and re-combination to be actively encouraged and celebrated. Currently, it is possible to get your hands on this data if you work with the BBC (Lonclass), pay license fees (UDC) or exchange USB sticks with the right party in some shady backstreet. Whether the metaphor of choice is ‘key to the archives’ or ‘conceptual map of…’, this is a deeply unfortunate situation, both for the intrinsic public value of these datasets, but also for the collections they index. There’s a wealth of meaning hidden inside Lonclass and UDC and the collections they index, a lot that can be added by linking it to other RDF datasets, but more importantly there are huge communities out there who’ll do much of the work when the data is finally opened up…

I wrote too much. What I meant to say is simple. Classification systems with compositional semantics can be enriched when we map their basic terms using identifiers from other shared data sets. And those in the UDC/Lonclass tradition, while in some ways they’re showing their age (weird numeric codes, huge monolithic, hard-to-maintain databases), … are also amongst the most interesting systems we have today for navigating information, especially when combined with Linked Data techniques and companion datasets.

Opening and closing like flowers (social platform roundupathon)

Closing some tabs…

Stephen Fry writing on ‘social network’ sites back in January (also in the Guardian):

…what an irony! For what is this much-trumpeted social networking but an escape back into that world of the closed online service of 15 or 20 years ago? Is it part of some deep human instinct that we take an organism as open and wild and free as the internet, and wish then to divide it into citadels, into closed-border republics and independent city states? The systole and diastole of history has us opening and closing like a flower: escaping our fortresses and enclosures into the open fields, and then building hedges, villages and cities in which to imprison ourselves again before repeating the process once more. The internet seems to be following this pattern.

How does this help us predict the Next Big Thing? That’s what everyone wants to know, if only because they want to make heaps of money from it. In 1999 Douglas Adams said: “Computer people are the last to guess what’s coming next. I mean, come on, they’re so astonished by the fact that the year 1999 is going to be followed by the year 2000 that it’s costing us billions to prepare for it.”

But let the rise of social networking alert you to the possibility that, even in the futuristic world of the net, the next big thing might just be a return to a made-over old thing.


Dear Mr. Zuckerberg,

After checking many of the profiles on your website, I feel it is my duty to inform you that there are some serious errors present. [...]

Lest-we-forget. AOL search log privacy goofup from 2006:

No. 4417749 conducted hundreds of searches over a three-month period on topics ranging from “numb fingers” to “60 single men” to “dog that urinates on everything.”

And search by search, click by click, the identity of AOL user No. 4417749 became easier to discern. There are queries for “landscapers in Lilburn, Ga,” several people with the last name Arnold and “homes sold in shadow lake subdivision gwinnett county georgia.”

It did not take much investigating to follow that data trail to Thelma Arnold, a 62-year-old widow who lives in Lilburn, Ga., frequently researches her friends’ medical ailments and loves her three dogs. “Those are my searches,” she said, after a reporter read part of the list to her.

Time magazine punditising on iGoogle, Facebook and OpenSocial:

Google, which makes its money on a free and open Web, was not happy with the Facebook platform. That’s because what happens on Facebook stays on Facebook. Google would much prefer that you come out and play on its platform — the wide-open Web. Don’t stay behind Facebook’s closed doors! Hie thee to the Web and start searching for things. That’s how Google makes its money.

So, last fall, Google rallied all the other major social networks (MySpace, Bebo, Hi5 and so on) and announced a new initiative called OpenSocial. OpenSocial wants to be like Facebook’s platform, only much bigger: Widget makers can write applications for it and they can run anywhere — on MySpace, Bebo and Google’s own social network, Orkut, which is very big in Brazil.

Google’s platform could actually dwarf Facebook — if it ever gets off the ground.

Meanwhile on the widget and webapp security front, we have “BBC exposes Facebook flaw” (information about your buddies is accessible to apps you install; information about you is accessible to apps they install). Also see Thomas Roessler’s comments to my Nokiana post for links to a couple of great presentations he made on widget security. This includes a big oopsie with the Google Mail widget for MacOSX. Over in Ars Technica we learn that KDE 4.1 alpha 1 now has improved widget powers, including “preliminary support for SuperKaramba and Mac OS X Dashboard widgets“. Wonder if I can read my Gmail there…

As Stephen Fry says,  these things are “opening and closing like a flower”. The big hosted social sites have a certain oversimplifying retardedness about them. But the ability for code to go visit data (the widget/gadget model), is I think as valid as the opendata model where data flows around to visit code. I am optimistic that good things will come out of this ferment.

A few weeks ago I had the pleasure of meeting several of the Google OpenSocial crew in London. They took my grumbling about accessibility issues pretty well, and I hope to continue that conversation. Industry politics and punditry aside, I’m impressed with their professionalism and with the tie-in to an opensource implementation through Apache’s ShinDig project. The OpenSocial specs list is open to the public, where Cassie has just announced that “all 0.8 opensocial and gadgets spec changes have been resolved” (after a heroic slog through the issue list). I’m barely tracking the detail of discussion there, things are moving fast. There’s now a proposed REST API, for example; and I learned in London about plans for a formatting/templating system, which might be one mechanism for getting FOAF/RDF out of OpenSocial containers.

If OpenSocial continues to grow and gather opensource mindshare, it’s possible Facebook will throw some chunks of their platform over the wall (ie. “do an Adobe“). And it’ll probably be left to W3C to clean up the ensuring mess and fragmentation, but I guess that’s what they’re there for. Meanwhile there’s plenty yet to be figured out, … I think we’re in a pre-standards experimentation phase, regardless of how stable or mature we’re told these platforms are.

The fundamental tension here is that we want open data, open platforms, … for data and code to flow freely, but to protect the privacy, lives and blushes of those it describes. A tricky balance. Don’t let anyone tell you it’s easy, that we’ve got it figured out, or that all we need to do is “tear down the walls”.

Opening and closing like flowers…

One Big Happy Family (FOAF/RDF and Microformats)

I just signed up to give a talk at the Microformats vEvent in London, May 27th; thanks to the organizers (Frances Berriman and Drew McLellen of for inviting me :)

I’ve called it “One Big Happy Family: Practical Collaboration on Meaningful Markup” and my goal really is to help make it easier for enthusiasts for both RDF and Microformats to say ‘we‘ rather than ‘they‘ a bit more often when discussing complementary efforts from this community. As I said on the foaf-dev list yesterday, “anything good for Microformats is good for FOAF”; vice-versa too, I hope. There’s only one Web and we’re all doing our bit, with the tools and techniques we know best.

Here’s the abstract:

This talk explores some ways in which the Microformat and RDF approaches can complement each other, and some ways in which we can share data, tools and experiences between these two technologies. It will outline the often-unarticulated history of the RDF design, the techniques used for parsing and querying RDF data, and the things made easy and hard through this approach. RDF techniques can be contrasted with the different choices made for Microformats. However these differences obscure an underlying similarity that comes from shared ‘Webby’ values.

Edit: it seems I’m incapable of spelling “compl[ie]mentary”. Freudian slip? :)

BTW the London Web Week site has just gone live; check it out…

Robert Fisk talking in London

Spotted at bottom of Socialist Review excerpts from his massive (1300+ pages!) “Great War for Civilisation” book:

Robert Fisk will be speaking about his new book at Bookmarks bookshop, central London, on Tuesday 11 October at 1pm.

I called, they said it costs 3 pounds on the door, 1 Bloomsbury Street, nearest tube Tottenham Court Road (around here somewhere I guess), and that there’s a large hall booked now so advance tickets aren’t needed.

So I’ll probably be in London next tuesday for that, in case anyone else is around and interested.

“Do you know what these pages are?”

Anyways, so I went to the internet café and did my regular tour: raed in the middle, riverbend, etc etc..and then I was bored again. I left the internet café heading towards the financial department again. [...]

“come with us, we have some questions please” they said, and I went with them, searching for answers inside my head…

They searched me very carefully; they took my shoes off and searched them, and even took my watch. They read every paper I had in my pockets, and asked me questions about my origin, nationality, and many other questions. Then they asked me to unlock my mobile phone so that they can check it out. [...]

I was afraid to be taken to the torture rooms directly; I was praying to find someone to talk to, to explain to him that this all is nothing but a little silly mistake!

For the next few hours, they asked me questions like “who are the other members of our terrorist cell, where does your fund come from? What operations did you have?” [...]

Then finally I understood why I was there, after few hours. Security guards at the university had printed out all the websites I was reading while I was online there. They were accusing me of “reading terrorism sites” and “having communications with foreign terrorists”. “Do you know what these pages are?” I looked at them and figured out they were the comment section of Raed in the Middle!!

Excerpted from Khalid Jarrar’s lengthy account of his extended visit to the Iraqi mokhabarat’s jail. See also Rael in the Middle‘s earlier (ie. pre-release) “Fortunately, it’s a nice governmental gang!:

The feelings of joyfulness in our family now would give anyone the impression that my brother has won the lottery! My mom spent the morning planning my brother’s future, including the arrangements of his wedding party!

If your child or sibling vanishes for two days then calls from the secret service jail in any other place on earth, that would be considered a disaster and a violation of human rights…

In Iraq, however, it’s Happy News.

Because the other options include: To be tortured, executed, and thrown in garbage by SCIRI and their Badr brigades. To be held by the Iraqi police and left to choke to death in one of their cars. To be held by the US troops then disappear and be mistreated for months in one of their many prisons. To be kidnapped by one of the countless criminal gangs and cost your family some tens of millions of Iraqi Dinars and/or your life.

From Faiza,

Well, when i came back from America before one month, my plans to the future was like that i should go back to Iraq to participate the political operation and try to make change to the stop the violence, the corruption, the evil works controling the daily life. But after the ordeal of my son, i can see Iraq from new eyes, its not the one i want to live in or work with, its now filled with people in power working under the banner : ‘its our turn to revenge and nobody can stop us !’

So, they are controling the streets, the media, the decisions, the social and political activities.. And the moderate groups are helpless, there is no chance to them now, nobody listen to their voice, the violence and hatred are talking now loudly in Iraq , some groups from inside and outside of Iraq, want this to be, to accomplish their agenda… and the victims are iraqis, all iraqis, the rich and the poor, the old and the young, the men and women and children, the sunni and shi`ee, and iraqis and noniraqis ….all have been targeted in this mess. I have met different kinds of iraqi people, working with government as moderate, trying to make change, but i saw how depressed they are, and trying to protect their families to get them out of iraq, this is their priority now, and i saw them as powerless, they cant help any iraqi in jail or bad condition, they have nothing to do..

See Khalid’s post for stories of the other prisoners, more on the interogation and court process…

My family played an important role to help me get out of the Mukhabarat’s jail faster than other people. Like any other corrupt system, you can get a better treatment by knowing the right people and giving the right “gifts”. My family didn’t pay anything to the judge because they believed I was innocent, they tried their best to get me a lawyer, but they couldn’t. I was freed because I was innocent, and I have the capabilities to defend myself in front of a judge.

The question is: what about the rest of Iraqis? The ones who don’t have the money or the power to leave places like that? The innocent people who were taken away from their families and loved ones and accused of false crimes? What happens to them? Who will stand for them? What about human rights? What about civil rights? What about humanity?

Meanwhile, in London

World Peace – Dream or Possibility?

Many organisations, religious and secular, have long since found that if people of goodwill, representing various nations, meet together to discuss some matter of common interest, a spirit of friendship is developed. In such circumstances, individuals frequently discover to their suprise that foreigners are, at heart, very like themselves. Consequently, one of the best methods of advancing the idea of World-Peace is to organise such opportunities for international friendship.

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